Chartered accountant (CA) is an international designation awarded to professionals, from finance and accounting background, which satisfy minimum qualification. CAs were the first accounting professionals to form a body in 1854.
It is a certification that the professional has the qualification to file tax returns, audit accounts and other financial statements, including business practices and offer advisory services. They are employed in government services, private institutions and many of them work independently, as well.
In India, CAs are regulated by ICAI (Institute of Chartered Accountants of India), which was established by CA Act of 1949. It recommends the accounting standards to be followed in the country and also the standards of auditing, which needs to be followed by every company. It also sets the standards which the professionals need to follow.
To become a CA, one has to take a CA Foundation course after 12 th grade and clear the intermediate and final exams to become a certified CA. Alternatively, they can train as article assistant for three years in a chartered firm before taking the intermediate and final exam. They are governed by a Code of Ethics and any violations to that may attract disciplinary action.
And many other management principles and methodologies....